The focal parasites are some of the most economically important of pastures, turf grass, and small grain crops. It may provide insights into sustainable pest management. Tall fescue is a plant of global economic importance, including in the state of North Carolina. First, it is the most widely planted turf grass. More relevant to our proposed research, it is one of the most important forage and fodder species for livestock. Tall fescue covers an estimated 1,000,000 acres of the state, with the annual economic value of improved pasture, unimproved pasture, and non-alfalfa hay totaling to over $250,000,000.